Each cell line or assay requires a validation of reference genes for a robust gene expression analysis. Alternatively, one can try “classical” housekeeping genes as reference standard which have proven their suitibility as controls in a variety of assays.

On the right side you will find an overview of commonly used reference genes. For more details please see the following publications:

Ahrberg, C. D., & Neužil, P. (2015). Doubling Throughput of a Real-Time PCR. Scientific Reports, 5(1), 12595. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep12595
Gholami, K., Loh, S. Y., Salleh, N., Lam, S. K., & Hoe, S. Z. (2017). Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for qPCR in kidney and hypothalamus of rats under testosterone influence. PLOS ONE, 12(6), e0176368. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176368
Radonić, A., Thulke, S., Mackay, I. M., Landt, O., Siegert, W., & Nitsche, A. (2004). Guideline to reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 313(4), 856–862. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BBRC.2003.11.177
Kozera, B., & Rapacz, M. (2013). Reference genes in real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Genetics, 54(4), 391–406. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13353-013-0173-x
Gong, H., Sun, L., Chen, B., Han, Y., Pang, J., Wu, W., … Zhang, T. (2016). Evaluation of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in three metabolism related tissues of mice after caloric restriction. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 38513. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep38513
HGNC Symbol
GAPDH
PGK1
ACTB
HPRT
TUBA
HMBS
GUSB
RPL13A
YWHAZ
Β2M
TBP
PPIA
RPII
G6PDH
ALB